Low-cost CMOS image acquisition system based on single chip microcomputer

In many occasions, due to the limitations of objective conditions, it is impossible for people to enter the scene for direct observation. It can only be replaced by more adaptive electronic image equipment. The image technology developed in this context has become a hot application technology. First, it is widely used in many occasions because of its intuitive and rich information content. To achieve image acquisition in the IoT system, the following characteristics of the Internet of Things must be considered: (1) IoT nodes are price sensitive. The Internet of Things is a large-scale application of information sensing technology. The number of sensing nodes is hundreds of thousands. If the cost of each node is increased, the cost of the entire IoT system will increase a lot. Therefore, the cost of sensor node image acquisition should be as low as possible. (2) Most IoT applications do not require high image quality. Image acquisition is mainly to help users to observe the scene without having to go to the scene. For most applications, as long as the scene scene can be distinguished, it is not necessary to collect images of very high pixels. (3) Based on cost considerations, most of the Internet of Things use RS232, Zigbee, GPRS and other networking methods with low transmission rate, and the image transmission time is longer. However, many monitoring nodes are placed in a fixed position, and the acquired images are quasi-static images. That is to say, in most cases, the images are unchanged, so the frame rate is not high. Even if the image acquisition speed is slower, it will not have much impact on the observation of the scene. The low-cost CMOS image acquisition system based on single-chip microcomputer is designed in the context of such specific applications. According to the characteristics of the IoT sensor node, combined with the existing technical conditions and practical applications, a single-chip microcomputer is directly connected to the CMOS image sensor, using Flash as the image memory, RS232 as the image transmission protocol, and multi-frame images are stitched into one image. The image method enables remote monitoring. The selected devices are inexpensive, hardware connections are simple, and the cost is very low. The system can be used as a separate image acquisition system alone, and can be attached to other IoT nodes at a very low cost. 1 system overall scheme Image acquisition system is an organic whole composed of related electronic equipment and transmission medium such as image acquisition, image storage, image transmission and system control according to a specific use purpose and application conditions. Figure 1 is a general block diagram of the system. The system is mainly composed of a single chip microcomputer, an image sensor, and a flash image memory. The image sensor is responsible for image acquisition, and the acquired image data is read by the single chip in real time. The resolution of the image sensor is 240 & TImes; 320, the data volume is 150KB, and the internal RAM of the MCU is only 2K, and the next frame image is saved. Therefore, a Flash is selected as the image memory, and the MCU reads the image data read into the Flash. Image memory. Since the image data is transferred to the Flash and takes up the time of data acquisition, this causes the MCU to miss the collection of some data. According to the application background of the captured image as a still image, the missed data can be replaced by the next two frames. An algorithm for forming an image using three frames of images is determined. After the image capture is completed, the MCU reads the image data from the Flash image memory and transmits it to the host computer through the RS232 port.

Overall block diagram of the system

Figure 1 system overall block diagram

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